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Life in Tuscany

Tuscan life is generally simple. Lots of events happen around food, wine and life in the countryside. There are still weekly markets in most towns and larger villages and many of the traditional festivals are deeply felt and honoured by the town inhabitants. 

Living in Italy does have some differences to your home country. We have put together some information that will help you know how to do as the locals do.

Life in Tuscany

Truffle-hunting in Tuscany

Tuscany’s lush green hills, interlaced with vineyards, olive groves and pine forests, bears many culinary fruits. The most treasured of all is the truffle – and we’re not talking about the chocolate variety.

The Romans adored truffles for their aphrodisiac qualities. Today, cooks across the world use their distinctive flavours and to add a touch of class to their dishes. These gourmet delicacies are so precious some are even worth their weight in gold.

The most famous white truffle is most found in the Piedmont region of Italy, near the city of Alba. Every autumn the warty treats are plucked from between the roots of oak, hazel, poplar and beech trees and sold at the truffle markets during the International White Truffle Festival of Alba. It is partly thanks to this festival – and partly due to clever marketing – that Alba truffle has become the most revered truffle worldwide.

However, many believe the Tuscan white truffle, found around Siena and Pisa, is just as flavoursome and much better value for money. For this reason, an increasing number of truffle lovers make a beeline for Tuscany during the autumn months for a truffle experience in a more intimate and less commercial atmosphere, to try, buy and even hunt for truffles.

The truffle hunters, or Trifolau, keep their finds and locations a closely guarded secret and generally hunt for truffles at night. But these covert operations aren’t just timed to cover the hunter’s movements, it’s said the scent of the truffle is stronger at night, making it easier for the truffle dogs to find.

Originally, truffles were hunted with female pigs because it was thought that the scent from the truffles resembled the pheromone of the male pig. Unfortunately, pigs are partial to truffles, so many of these fungi never got as far as the kitchen. Also, as one hunter told us: “It’s much easier to get a dog in the back of the car!”

The dogs are trained from a young age with pieces of strong-smelling cheese, which are buried for them to find. Eventually, the cheese is swapped for small truffles to sniff out. Alternatively, a promising dog will be sent to truffle-hunting school. It’s a long process, taking around four years for a dog to become fully trained.

A good hunting dog is invaluable, and each year there are reports of experienced hounds being poisoned by rival hunters. Once the dog indicates a possible find, the Trifolau uses a narrow spade to dig up the truffle without damaging it, and then returns the earth to the hole so that truffles can regrow for another year. All attempts to grow truffles in artificial environments or from seed have so far failed. It would seem Mother Nature knows her stuff and is not prepared to give up her secrets so easily.

The dedicated hunt for truffles almost all year round. From January to March, they seek out the dark winter truffles,. From March to April they hunt for the tan truffle or bianchetto (which have been known to fool the inexperienced into thinking they are the more expensive prized white truffles). From June to November the more common black or summer truffle can be unearthed, and in September the first of the prized tartufo bianco, or white truffles, can be found.

This is the high point in the truffle hunters’ year, and there are a number of festivals in Tuscany that celebrate this expensive delicacy. Among the most important are the festivals at San Giovanni d’Asso and San Miniato, where the quality of the truffles is on a par with those sold in Alba but the prices are not as high. San Giovanni d’Asso also has a museum dedicated to the truffle.
To get a sense of the atmosphere, take a look at Adrian Fletcher’s terrific pictures of a truffle hunt in San Giovanni d’Asso at paradoxplace  and this video by Graeme Robertson of The Guardian:

We recently hosted CNN journalist Maureen O’Hare on a truffle-hunt in San Miniato. She and To Tuscany’s proprietor Sean Caulfield were offered a glimpse of the truffle-hunter’s skill by Massimo Cucchiara, whose family has been involved with the precious tuber for many years. You can read Maureen’s article here If you want to meet Massimo and try this ancient and fascinating hunt for yourself, visit Truffle in TuscanyAnd one of the best places to taste this delicacy is at chef and TV personality Gilberto Rossi’s restaurant, Pepenero, in San Miniato. Check out Truffle in Tuscany for special packages combining the hunt, a cooking class and the tasting experience with Gilberto and his team.

To Tuscany has plenty of accommodation ideally located to make the most of the truffle season, such as cosy Il Gallo,  which has two properties, suitable for couples and small families, or Il Rattoppo, a charming house sleeping two with private pool. There is also the small hamlet of Fattoria Armena which has three apartments for four to seven people, each with its own private garden set in beautiful grounds surrounded by forest and olive groves. Alternatively, take a look at To Tuscany’s villas in Pisa
Having bought your truffle, what to do with it?
If you have purchased a tartufo blanco (white truffle), eat it as soon as possible because it won’t keep for very long. Slice it very finely or grate it over baked or fried eggs, or plain pasta. Avoid cooking a white truffle, which will dull its taste. However, the opposite is true of the black truffle, which needs to be sautéed in butter to bring out the flavour. It’s best served with plain pasta.bring out the best flavour, again this is best served with plain pasta.

Finally, if you find a truffle but are not entirely sure it is one, check with someone who knows. Remember it is also the mushroom season and f you’re inexperienced it’s easy to get them confused.

For further information about truffle hunters and truffle hunting, contact:

Association of Truffle Hunters of Siena
Via XX Settembre 17, 53024 San Giovanni d’Asso (SI)
Tel: +39 0577 803213

Associazione Tartufai delle Colline Sanminiatesi 
Piazza del Popolo, 19, 56028 San Miniato (PI)
Tel. +39 0571 42014

Truffle in Tuscany
Via Covina, 44/C, 56028 San Miniato (PI)
Tel. +39 3479030371
www.truffleintuscany.it

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Tuscany’s Olive Oil

Italy is renowned for the high quality of its olive oil, and rightly so. Some of the best comes from Tuscany, with single-estate bottled oil being the most highly prized ¬– and the most expensive.

The soil, type of tree, amount of sunshine and the amount of rain that falls during the growing season all play their part in determining the flavour of the oil. A variety of olive trees are grown in Italy, each of which has its own particular characteristics. Most of the olive trees grown in Tuscany are Frantoio, Leccino, Pendolio, Maurino, Moraiolo and Taggiasca.

The best type of soil to plant the trees in is clay or good loamy soil with plenty of drainage. Although olive trees can thrive in difficult conditions, there is no guarantee of a reliable crop each year. It is essential that the trees have good irrigation throughout the growing season to maximise their yield. Olives are produced on the previous year's growth; therefore, annual pruning is essential for maintaining the health of the tree, ensuring an annual crop and encouraging an even fruit set.

Olives are picked by hand to minimise damage to the fruit  and then washed to remove any dirt and dust. Within 24 to 48 hours of being harvested, the olives, including the skin and stones, are crushed into a pulp by a stone mill or metal grinder. This pulp is then pressed using a traditional wooden or modern hydraulic press. This is the first pressing and strict guidelines must be adhered to during this process. In order to label a bottle “first cold pressing”, or in the case of an industrial process “cold extraction”, EU guidelines state that the olives must be pressed at a temperature below 27C.

Perhaps the most skilled part of the process, is deciding when to harvest the olives, because this determines the flavour and taste. Pick too soon or too late and the acidity of the fruit will affect the quality and flavour of the oil detrimentally. Extra-virgin olive oil must have an acidity level of less than 1 per cent. The Italian government has introduced protected designation of origin labels for its olive oils’ DOP. In addition, olive oil from the Chianti region has a special quality-assurance label of denomination of controlled origin DOC.

It is quite normal for an extra-virgin olive oil to have some sediment at the bottom of the bottle; this is because many of the oils are not filtered after pressing to retain maximum flavour. Once bottled, the oil should be stored away from direct sunlight and should not be exposed to extremes of temperature – a cool pantry or cellar is ideal. Once opened, the oil should be used within a year or by the consume-by date on the label– it’s so delicious it is unlikely to last that long anyway.

Olive oil, in particular the pure extra-virgin olive oil, is a powerful antioxidant, containing monounsaturated fats, beneficial fats that help reduce cholesterol levels, good for our hearts and our general wellbeing. Olive oil is also widely used in cosmetics, mixed with essential oils in moisturisers and used in high-quality soaps.

Fancy joining in the olive harvest or witnessing it first hand? Ask when booking where this is possible and we’ll be happy to advise. The harvest takes place on your doorstep, if you stay in a villa at Montebuoni or Montefiorile. We pick the olives growing in and around both of these hamlets, then take them to our neighbours at the vineyard Casanuova di Ama, who have them cold pressed in Volterra, after which the oil is bottled.

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Tuscany Wines

“Tuscany, as regards wines, has no equal the world over, thanks to a most felicitous nature, and to a civilization of the grapevine and of wine that has been decanted and refined over the centuries.”
Zeffito Cuiffoletti - Historian

Tuscany has a rich history of viticulture. Its rolling hills and Mediterranean climate provide the perfect conditions for the production of good-quality wines. The region is particularly renowned for its red wines, most of which are produced from Sangiovese grapes. These reds are generally spicy, with good acid levels, smooth texture and medium body.

The most exclusive Sangiovese wine is the high-quality Brunello di Montalcino, from a fortress town south of Siena. It is one of Italy’s most expensive wines and is now issued under more than 100 different labels. This wine is produced solely from Sangiovese grapes and takes at least 10 years to reach maturity. Other Sangiovese wines include Chianti and Chianti Classico. But unlike Brunello di Montalcino, these also contain a small amount (between 10 and 15 per cent) of Cabernet Sauvignon, Merlot and Syrah grapes.

Chianti Classico comes from the vineyards that lie between Florence and Siena, with the towns of Greve, Radda and Castellina forming a triangle in the very heart of the Chianti area. Most of these wines belong to the Classico’s marketing consortium and bear the Gallo Nero symbol, a black rooster, the symbol of an authentic bottle of Chianti Classico. Two kinds of Chianti Classico are available, Standard and Riserva. Standard is labelled with a Gallo Nero surrounded by a red border, whereas Riserva is labelled with a Gallo Nero surrounded by a gold border. Riservas are produced from some of the finest grapes and aged for a minimum of 27 months to provide an additional full-bodied flavour.

Many Chianti wines also hold the DOC/DOCG (Dominazione di Origine Controllato/ Dominazione di Origine Controllato e Guarantita) status. This Italian quality-assurance label was introduced in 1963 by the Italian government and amended in 1992 by the EU law for the Protected Designation of Origin. To meet the DOC/DOCG requirements wines must be produced within the specified region using defined methods and must also meet a defined quality standard.

Other important Sangiovese-based red wines that hold the DOC/DOCG status include Tignanello and Sassicaia, with prices and popularity on a similar scale to Brunello di Montalcino. Others include Montepulciano, Montalcino, Bolgheri, Carmignano and Maremma.

Since the 1970s more modern wines have emerged, made from international grape varieties  and using French barriques, or barrels. These are the Super Tuscans. Grapes such as Cabernet Sauvignon and Merlot were introduced and mixed with the classic Sangiovese to produce other high-quality wines but at a much lower cost due to modern techniques. But these avant garde methods did not fit the new DOC/DOCG laws and the wines were forced to take the humble label of Vini da Tavola, or table wine. Over time, these wines have gained a reputation as some of the finest ever made in Italy and their prices are well above those charged for an ordinary table wine.

Tuscany also produces a small amount of white wines. Most, however, have not gained the prestige of the reds because until relatively recently they were produced from the workaday Trebbiano grape and tended to have quite a dull taste. One exception is Vernaccia di San Gimignano, produced from the Vernaccia grape, a well-made crisp and dry white, one of the first to be awarded the DOC status. Nowadays, however, many good whites are produced in Tuscany, including the international variety of Chardonnays, Sauvignons, Pinot Bianco and Pinot Grigio, together with more traditional whites such as Pomino and Vin Santo.

And last, but not least, there’s Grappa.Grappa, or grape stalk, is a grape-based pomace brandy (between 37.5 and 60 per cent alcohol) made from grape seeds, stalks and stems left over from winemaking after pressing. This by-product of Italian wine can either be taken on its own or added as a shot to an espresso coffee, generally taken after meals to aid digestion.

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Coffee in Italy

Coffee! Most of us start our day with an aromatic cup of coffee at breakfast to wake up, regular coffee that is. No misunderstanding here, we order a cappuccino when out for a nice dinner or when we are on holiday in Italy. Sometimes we drink an espresso, or a caffe latte. When we drink coffee or what kind of coffee we drink, all is fine, we just enjoy!

This is different in Tuscany and the rest of Italy. Coffee is an important part of the Italian culture.

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Tuscany Trains

An alternative way of travelling to and around Italy is by train. There are good international connections from mainland Europe to most of the major Italian cities, as well as an extensive network of local trains serving the smaller towns and villages.
Tickets are generally not too expensive, and you can use your Credit/Debit Cards for payment.

Omio
Omio is a great website easily allowing you to search for various transport options all on one page. You can also book Trenitalia tickets directly on their website and app as well, making search and booking a breeze.
www.omio.com
For motorail
A good site for motorail service in Europe is
www.railchoice.co.uk
For the Italian State Railway, including international trains to and from Italy.
www.trenitalia.it

Another excellent website that provides information about travelling to Italy by train is Seat61, this website provides information about fares and timetables based on travel from the UK
Trainseurope
Trainseurope have over 10 years experience in booking European rail tickets for individuals as well as tour operator groups, and they will be happy to discuss any requirements you may have. In addition to arranging tickets from the UK to most destinations in Europe, they can also arrange tickets for travel between many European cities, making twin-centre city breaks a real possibility. For all point to point tickets as well as Eurostar connections, contact them and an experienced consultant will be happy to help you.

Using the trains to travel around Italy is an excellent way of taking a day trip to visit the many historical towns and cities. The rail network in Italy is quite extensive and travelling between cities and towns by rail is an ideal way to travel. Once on board you can sit back and relax and take in the ever changing view from the window. Forget the hassle of driving…take the train and enjoy the journey.

There are a number of ways to purchase tickets; at the station, certain local travel agents and it is now possible to prebook tickets via the internet before you leave home. Visit the Italian State Railway website www.trenitalia.com for up to date information on how to purchase tickets and consult timetables.

There are various different types of train that run on the Italian rail network. The types of train and their symbols are listed below.

Eurocity (EC) and EuroNight (EN). These trains offer fast intercontinental journey times throughout Europe both day and overnight to Switzerland, Austria, France, Spain, Croatia, Slovenia, Prague and Budapest.
Eurostar (ES) and Intercity (IC). These are fast trains operating between the major Italian cities. Eurostar trains are all high speed trains, very comfortable but more expensive, you do not need to book a seat as this is automatically done when you buy your ticket. Seat reservation on Intercity trains is optional and costs €3; however during peak periods it is advisable to prebook seats.
Rapido (R) - a long distance express train, stops at many of the stations.
Espresso (E) - stops at all the major stations, so it is slower than the Rapido!
Inter-Regionale (IR) - travels between regions and sometimes is in service only on weekends and holiday periods.
Regionale Diretto (D) - travels at faster speeds than the Locale and stops at fewer stations; this train travels within a region and bordering regions e.g. In Tuscany or between Tuscany and Umbria
Regionale Locale (L) - slow train which stops at every station within a region e.g. from Florence to Siena, it stops at all stations in between, even the tiniest towns.

You may find the following terms useful when at the train station.
treni in arrivo - arrivals
treni in partenza - departures
binario - platform
in orario - on time
in ritardo - delayed

Before boarding a train make sure you validate your ticket at one of the machines (“obliteratrici”)on the platform. Please note that it is no longer possible to purchase or validate tickets on board trains. Failure to validate your ticket before travel or travelling without a valid ticket could result in a fine. In the larger cities, e.g. Rome and Milan, bus, metro and tram tickets are valid for a certain period of time normally 75 minutes, so you can get on and off as many times as you wish within the period indicated on the ticket. The same ticket will allow you to use all public transport within the one city, however only one metro ride is allowed. When in Rome and Milan, you can buy a special 24hour ticket which offers a full day’s travel on buses, metro and trams.
Below is an alphabetical list of all the stations in Tuscany with their addresses and province. To check routes, timetables and ticket prices go to www.trenitalia.com website


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Strade Bianche

Strade Bianche or white roads are unpaved gravel roads that reach across the countryside of Tuscany and Umbria, weaving their way through oak forests, olive groves, vines, meadows and fields of grain. The white colour that gives these roads their unique character comes from the compacted local limestone gravel that forms them.

Today the Strade Bianche are preserved as a national treasure. In 1997 the L'Eroica, a trend setting, non competitive cycling event that now attracts around 8,000 riders per year for the ultimate vintage bike challenge, was originally created to help preserve the Strade Bianche. Following the success of L'Eroica in 2017 a new Strade Bianche bike race was installed onto the professional cycling world tour calendar to kick off the in European season offering the juxtaposition of the modern, high-tech cycling circus with the ancient Tuscan trails.

In the summer months most Strade Bianche traffic is peaceful and recreational whether by foot, on two wheels or fours wheels. Other road users include wildlife and farmers traversing from one crop to another and tourists looking out for the turn off indication to their villa.

For the purpose of our guests we have divided the Strade Bianche into 4 categories:
1. Unpaved, even: Standard road clearance vehicle recommended
2. Unpaved, uneven: High clearance vehicle recommended
3. Unpaved, uneven, uphill segments: High clearance vehicle and experienced driver recommended
4. Unpaved, uneven, steep uphill segments: High clearance vehicle, experienced driver and minimum weight to power ratio of 20kg/KW recommended)

Click on the link to check your vehicle’s weight to power ratio ratio: http://www.carfolio.com/

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